I was once told that the English language is a lot like a Magpie. Since, the Magpie will eat any animal food it can find within it’s environment.We can probably relate it to the English language. How English is now seeded in many and most cultures, to so much of an extent that English is a common “second language” (or “lingua franca”). This can only be done by the English language loaning bits and pieces off other languages….
Of course, we all know this.
But how much foreign influence the English language had, was truly unknown to me until I researched the etymology of certain words. For example, Algebra always sounded odd. Where did it come from? Well, this is what I learnt this week. I’ve managed to compile all the foreign loan words into the English language in alphabetical order. Yes, i’m now an etymologist who’s made a mini dictionary. I hope you enjoy, because this took me ages.
abacus from Greek ἀβαξ abax ‘slab’ (MW), probably from אבק ‘abaq ‘dust’ (AHD), Hebrew
Abseil (German spelling: sich abseilen, a reflexive verb, to rope (seil) oneself (sich) down (ab)); the term abseiling is used in the UK and commonwealth countries, “roping (down)” in various English settings, and “rappelling” in the US.
abundance  (Old Fr. abundance, modern Fr. abondance)
access (Fr. accès)
accomplish (Old Fr. acomplir, modern Fr. accomplir)
acoustic, (Fr. acoustique)
adhesive, compare adhésif or feminine form adhésive
admiral أمير البحار amīr al-bihār, “commander of the seas”, a title in use in Arabic Sicily and continued by the Normans in Sicily in a Latinized form, and adopted successively by Genoese and French. Modern French is “amiral”. An English form under King Edward III (14th century) was “Amyrel of the Se”. Insertion of the ‘d’ was doubtless influenced by allusion to common Latin “admire”
adobe الطوبة al-ṭūba or at-tūba,[3] “the brick”. The first record of the word in a Western language is in 12th century Spanish.[4] It entered English from Mexico in the 18th century. The Arabic dictionary of Al-Jawhari dated about year 1000 made the comment that the Arabic word came from the Coptic language
adventure , (Old French auenture, compare modern Fr. aventure)
adversary , (Anglo French adverser, from Old Fr. adversier, compare modern Fr. adversaire)
aeroplane  (French aéroplane)
albatross الغطّاس al-ghaṭṭās, literally “the diver”, presumably a cormorant or others of the pelecaniform birds, which are diving waterbirds.[6] The derived Spanish alcatraz has its earliest record in 1386 as a type of pelican.[4] “Alcatras” was in English in the 16th century borrowed from Spanish and did not include albatrosses.[7] Beginning in the 17th century, every European language adopted “albatros” with a ‘b’ for these Pacific Ocean birds, the ‘b’ having been mobilized from Latinate alba = white. [3]
allotment  Fr. alotement
alchemy, chemistry الكيمياء al-kīmiyā, alchemy. The Arabic entered medieval Latin as alchimia, first attested in about the year 1140 in an Arabic-to-Latin translation by Plato Tiburtinus.[4] The Arabic word seems to have had its root in a late classical Greek word (the alchemy article has more details). The late medieval European words alchemy and alchemist gave rise in the 16th century to the words chemical and chemist, beginning in French and Latin. [4]
alcohol الكحل al-kohl, finely powdered kohl, especially stibnite. Crossref kohl in this list. The word with that meaning entered Latin in the 13th century. In 14th century Latin it could mean any finely ground and sifted material.[8] In the later medieval Latin alchemy literature it took on the additional meaning of a purified material, or “quintessence”, which was typically arrived at by distillation methods. The restriction to “quintessence of wine” (ethanol) started with the alchemist Paracelsus in the 16th century.[9] [5]
alfalfa الفصفصة al-fisfisa, alfalfa.[11] The English arose in mid-19th century far-west USA from Spanish alfalfa.[12] In medieval Spain alfalfa was cultivated as fodder for horses and had a reputation as the best fodder for them. The ancient Romans grew alfalfa but called it an entirely different name; history of alfalfa. [8]
algebra الجبر al-jabr, completing, or restoring broken parts. The mathematical sense comes from the title of the book “al-kitāb al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabr wa al-muqābala”, “The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completing and Balancing” by the 9th century mathematician al-Khwarizmi. When translated to Latin in the later 12th century, the book’s Latin title contained the newly minted word “Algebrae” representing al-jabr. [9]
algorithm, algorism الخوارزمي al-khwārizmī, a short name for the mathematician Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. The appellation al-Khwārizmī means “from Khwarizm”. The Latinization of this name to “Algorismi” in the late 12th century gave rise to algorismus in the 13th. Until the late 19th century both algorismus and algorithm simply meant the “Arabic” decimal number system.[13] [10]
alkali القلي al-qalī (from qalā, to fry), an alkaline material derived from the ashes of plants. Particularly plants that grew on alkaline soils—see Salsola kali. Earliest record in the West is in a 13th century Latin alchemy text.[4] [13]
alligator From Spanish el lagarto, “the lizard”
amber, ambergris عنبر ʿanbar, meaning ambergris, i.e. a waxy material produced in the stomach of sperm whales and used historically for perfumery. The word passed into the Western languages in the mid medieval centuries with the same meaning as the Arabic. In the late medieval centuries the Western word took on the additional meaning of amber, from causes not understood. Amber’s two meanings – ambergris and amber – then co-existed for more than three centuries. “Ambergris” was coined to eliminate the ambiguity. But it wasn’t until about 1700 that the ambergris meaning for amber died out in English.[16] [14]
ammunition, from munition , French
amulet (Middle Fr. amulette)
ancestor (Old Fr. ancestre, compare modern Fr. ancêtre)
anchovy from Spanish anchoa or more probably Portuguese anchova meaning “bluefish”; from Genoese or Corsican dialect; ultimately from Latin apua meaning “small fish” and Greek Αφυε aphye meaning “small fry” or from Basque anchuva meaning “dry”
anime  Fr. animé
anime アニメ  listen (help·info), Japanese animation; refers to animation in general in Japanese (from the English word “animation” as ‘animeshon’)
Angst,  German, angst, feeling of fear, but more deeply and without concrete object
antenna from antenna<antemna, “yard-arm, sail.” Possibly Etruscan *antithemna>*ant(th)emna from Greek ανάτηθήμένος anatithēmenos, something set up
apricot البرقوق al-birqūq, apricot.[17] Arabic is in turn traceable back to Byzantine Greek and thence to classical Latin praecoqua, literally “precocious” and specifically precociously ripening peaches.[2] The Arabic was passed onto the 14th century Portuguese albricoque and Catalan albercoc.[4] Seen in 1578 in English spelled abrecox.[7] [16]
archipelago from Italian, arcipelago = “archipel” which is ultimately derived from Greek Αρχιπέλαγος Arkhipelagos=literally: “chief sea”, meaning the Aegean Sea
armadillo From Spanish, armadillo, “little armored one”
Apache from Mexican Spanish from Yavapai ´epache meaning “people” or from Zuni apachu” meaning “enemy”
arena from arēna , Etruscan
armada From Spanish, “armed [fleet]” from the Spanish navy, La armada española
artichoke الخرشوف al-kharshūf, artichoke
arsenal دار الصناعة dār aṣ-ṣināʿa,[3] house of manufacturing.
Aryan from Latin Ariana, from Greek Ἀρεία Areia, ultimately from Sanskrit आर्य Arya-s “noble, honorable”
assassin حشاشين ḥashāshīn, an Arabic nickname for the Nizari branch of Ismailism in the Levant during the Crusades era.
aubergine الباذنجان al-bādhinjān, aubergine. The French aubergine came from the Catalan form. It embodies a change from al- to au- that happened in French.[20] [21] The aubergine food recipe name Moussaka is also of Arabic descent
autumn from autumnus “autumn.” Just as Etruscan veltha, an earth god, appears as Latin Vola or Olta and is in Voltumna and Vertumnus, so the parallel construction autumnus ought to come from Etruscan
Avast a nautical interjection (=”hold! stop!”), probably worn down from Dutch houd vast (=”hold fast”)
Avatar from Sanskrit अवतार avatāra, which means “descent”, an refers to the human incarnation of God during times of distress on earth
azure (color), lazurite (mineral) لازورد lazward, lazurite and lapis lazuli, a rock with a vivid blue color. In turn from “Lajward”, the location of a large deposit of lapis lazuli in northeastern Afghanistan.
banshee (from Irish bainsídhe/beansídhe, “female fairy”)
boycott Irish, (from Charles Boycott, an English land agent who was ostracised by his local community in Ireland)
bank (Old Fr. banque, from Old Italian banca, from Germanic)
battle  (Old Fr. bataille)
bayonet, compare baïonnette , French
bombard (Fr. “bombarde”)
Bordeaux French, wine
boudoir French, boudoir
boulevard French, boulevard
bouquet French, bouquet
bourbon French, whiskey
bourgeois French, bourgeois
boutique French, boutique
Braille French, braille
brassiere, compare brassière, although the modern French for this is soutien-gorge
brioche French, brioche
brochure  Fr. brochure, from brocher – to stitch
bureau , bureaucracy Fr. Bureaucracy, bureau
banana – West African, possibly Wolof banana
Bandanna from Bandhna,(बांधना), Hindi, to tie a scarf around the head.
Bangle from Bāngṛī बांगड़ी, Hindi, a type of bracelt.
Bungalow from बंगला banglA & Urdu بنگلہ banglA, literally, “(house) in the Bengal style”
Bamboo from Dutch bamboe, from Portuguese bambu, earlier mambu (16th century), probably from Malay samambu, though some suspect this is itself an imported word
Bauhaus German, bauhaus, art movement of the 20th century.
Bazooka “metal tube rocket launcher,” from name of a junkyard musical instrument used as a prop by U.S. comedian Bob Burns, extension of bazoo (slang for “mouth” or “boastful talk”), probably from Dutchbazuin (=”trumpet”)
bandit From Italian, bandito=”outlaw”
Buddha from Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha, which means “awakened, enligtened”, refers to Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism
bolero from Spanish bolero
bonanza from Spanish, bonanza meaning “prosperity”
breeze From Spanish brisa “cold northeast wind” or from Frisian briesen – to blow (wind)
Beaker from beker, Dutch [9] (=”mug, cup”)
belt from balteus, “sword belt.” Etruscan
Blink from Middle Dutch blinken (=”to glitter”)
Blister from Old French blestre, perhaps from a Scandinavian source or from Middle Dutch blyster (=”swelling”)
Block (solid piece) from Old French bloc (=”log, block”), via Middle Dutch bloc (=”trunk of a tree”) or Old High German bloh
Blow (hard hit) blowe, from northern and East Midlands dialects, perhaps from Middle Dutch blouwen (=”to beat”)
Balcony From Persian, بالاخانه balaakhana. بالا balaa = above + خانه khana = house, upperhouse
Bazaar from Persian بازار bāzār (=”market”), from Middle-Persian بها-زار bahâ-zâr (“The Place of Prices”)
Bronze  Perhaps ultimately from Pers. برن birinj “copper.”
boondocks  From Tagalog, a remote, usually brushy rural area, from the Tagalog bundok, which means “mountain” or the word bunduk (Bisayan Bukid) meaning “hinterland”, i.e., land area inland, away from the shore.
bagel From Yiddish, a ring-shaped bread roll made by boiling then baking the dough (from בײגל beygl)
Bluff (poker term) perhaps from Dutch bluffen (=”to brag, boast”) or verbluffen (=”to baffle, mislead”)
biro From Hungarian, László Bíró, the Hungarian inventor of the ballpoint pen.
Booze from Middle Dutch busen (=”to drink in excess”)
Brooklyn after the town of Breukelen near Utrecht, Dutch
Brainwashing A direct translation from Chinese 洗脑 xǐ nǎo (where 洗 literally means “wash”, while 脑 means “brain”, hence brainwash), a term and psychological concept first used by the People’s Volunteer Army during the Korean War
Brandy (wine) from brandewijn (literally “burnt wine”) Dutch
Blitz, German, Blitz,  taken from Blitzkrieg (lightning war).
Bow (front of a ship) from boeg, Dutch
borax, borate, boron بورق būraq, various salts (including borax) used as fluxes in metalworking
Boss from baas, Dutch
Buckwheat from Middle Dutch boecweite (=”beech wheat”) because of its resemblance between grains and seed of beech wheat
cache Fr. compare cacher
cadence Fr. cadence
Cadillac Fr. named for Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac
calligraphy Fr. calligraphie, from Greek kálos “beautiful” + grapheîn “to write”
castle Old North Fr. castel, Old Fr. chastel, compare modern Fr. château
chalice , Old Fr. chalice or calice, compare modern Fr. calice
Chicago  Fr, (from Fort Chécagou, from Algonquian)
Cheyenne, Fr. Cheyenne, from Dakota Sahi’yena
Cheetah from cītā, चीता, Hindi, meaning “variegated”.
cinema,  Fr. cinéma
city, Old Fr. cite, compare modern Fr. cité
cliché Fr. Cliché
connoisseur Old Fr. conoisseor, compare modern Fr. connaisseur
crème de la crème , crème brûlée Fr.
crêpe Fr.
croissant Fr.
curfew , Old Fr. covrefeu, compare Mod. Fr. couvre-feu
Caboose from kambuis or kombuis (=”ship’s kitchen”, “galley”), Dutch
caliber, calipers قالب qālib, mold
cannon From Italian, cannone=”gun”
caress From Italian, carezza=”stroke, pat”
carousel From Italian, carosello=”roundabout”
casino From Italian, casino, =”small house”, diminutive of casa In current Italian, it means a lot of noise, a mess, or a brothel.
candy from Middle English sugre candy, part translation of Middle French sucre candi, from Old French çucre candi, part translation of Italian zucchero candi, from zucchero sugar + Arabic قاندل qandIcandied, from Persian قند qand cane sugar; ultimately from Sanskrit खुड् khanda=”piece of sugar,” perhaps from Dravidian.
Calendere Persian قلندر  qalandar, from Arabic كالندر, and from Persian قلندر kalandar uncouth man. one of a Sufic order of wandering mendicant dervishes.
Checkmate from Middle French eschec mat, from Persian شاه مات shâh mât (=”the King (“Shah”) is dead”)
Chess from Russian Шах Shach, from Persian شاه shah (“the King”), an abbreviation of شاه-مات Shâh-mât (Checkmate).
China Via Chinese 秦 (referring to the Qin Dynasty), Sanskrit चीन Chinas, and Latin; Modification (influenced by China, the country) of Persian چین Cin (Chinese) porcelain.
Caricature Italian, from caricatura=”burlesque”
cauliflower from Italian, cavolfiore=”cabbage flower”
carat (mass), carat (gold purity) قيراط qīrāt, a very small unit of weight, defined as one-twentyfourth (1/24) of the weight of a certain coin namely the medieval Arabic gold dinar, and alternatively defined by reference to a weight of (e.g.) 4 barley seeds. The medieval Arabic word had an ancient Greek root keration, also denoting a small unit of weight
Cockatoo from kaketoe, Dutch
Coleslaw from koolsla (literally “cabbage salad”), Dutch
Commodore probably from Dutch kommandeur, from French commandeur, from Old French comandeor
Cookie from koekje, or in informal Dutch koekie [45] (=”biscuit”, “cookie”)
Coney Island (English dialect word for Rabbit) from Conyne Eylandt (literally “Rabbits’ Island”), Dutch
Cruise from Dutch kruisen (=”to cross, sail to and fro”), from kruis (=”cross”)
China via Latin Sina, Persian چین Cin, and Sanskrit चीन Chinas; ultimately from the name of the Ch’in Dynasty 秦
Chop chop from Cantonese chuk chuk 速速, lit. hurry, urgent
cipher, decipher صفر sifr, zero. Cipher came to Europe with Arabic numerals. Original meaning zero, then any numeral, then numerically encoded message.
coach From Hungarian, kocsi, a horse‐drawn wagon with springs above the axles. Named after the village of Kocs in which this type of vehicle was invented. The verb ‘to coach’ is also derived from this root.
Cosmonaut From Russian: космона́вт  (κόσμος kosmos a Greek word, which in Russian stands for ‘outer space’, rather than ‘world’ or ‘universe’, and nautes ‘sailor’, thus ‘space sailor’; the term cosmonaut was first used in 1959; the near similar word “cosmonautic” had been coined in 1947) A Russian astronaut
Cashmere From Sanskrit, Kashmir, the Himalayan region where this wool is from.[25] The name Kashmere is derived from Ka (का; “water”) and shimir (शिमिरि; “to desiccate”)
Crimson from Old Spanish cremesin, via Middle Latin cremesinus from Arabic قرمز qirmiz “a kermes”, which is ultimately from Sanskrit कृमिज krmi-ja literally: “red dye produced by a worm.”
Claymore From scottish gaelic, A large broadsword, from claidheamh mór [kʰlˠ̪ajəv moːɾ], great sword.
cannibal from Spanish caníbal, alteration of caríbal, from Caribe
Caribbean from Spanish Caribe, from name of Carib Indians of the region.
chocolate from Spanish chocolate, from Nahuatl xocolatl meaning “hot water” or from a combination of the Mayan word chocol meaning “hot” and the Nahuatl word atl meaning “water.”
cigar from Spanish cigarro meaning “fag, stogie, stogy”, from Mayan sicar or sic, “tobacco”
curry via Hindi-Urdu from Tamil கறி kaṟi “sauce”
corgi From Welsh, cor, “dwarf” + gi (soft mutation of ci), “dog”.
coffee, café قهوة qahwa, coffee. Qahwa (itself of uncertain origin) begot Turkish kahveh which begot Italian caffè. The latter form entered most Western languages in and around the early 17th century.Cafe mocha, a type of coffee, is named after the city of Mocha, Yemen, which was an early coffee exporter
coffee – disputed; either from the Ethiopian region/Kingdom of Kaffa, where coffee originated, or Arabic kahwa
Confucianism from Confucius, Latinized form of 孔夫子 (kǒng fūzǐ) ‘Master Kong’
cotton قطن qutun, cotton.
Cooties from Malay, kutu, ‘lice’
cravat From serbo-croatian, Hrvat = Croat
Decoy from de kooi (=”the cage,” used of a pond surrounded by nets, into which wildfowl were lured for capture), dutch


German, delikatessen, speciality food retailer, fine foods
devour (Old Fr. devorer)
Doodle from German dudeln “to play (the bagpipe)”, from dudel “a bagpipe”, from Czech or Polish dudy “a bagpipe”, from Turkish düdük “a flute”
Doppelgänger, literally double-goer, also spelled in English as doppelganger; a double or look-alike. However, in English the connotation is that of a ghostly apparition of a duplicate living person.
deuce Fr. from deux (two)
Dune English is from French dune (1790). French is possibly from Middle Dutch dune
Deva from Sanskrit देवी deva, which means “a god”, akin to Latin deus, “god”
Dharma from Pali धम्म dhamma and Sanskrit: धर्म, which means “law, justice”.
Dugong From Malay, duyung, ‘mermaid’
elephant , Old Fr. oliphant, compare modern Fr. éléphant
extravaganza from Italian, stravaganza=”eccentricity”
entourage Fr. entourage
ensemble Fr. Ensemble
en route Fr. En route
entrepreneur Fr. entrepreneur
Excalibur Old.Fr. Escalibor
elixir الإكسير al-‘iksīr, alchemical philosopher’s stone. The Arabs took the word from the Greek xērion (then prepended Arabic al- = the) which had entered Arabic with the meaning of a healing powder for wounds. The word’s Arabic alchemy sense entered Latin in the 12th century.[4] Elixir is in all European languages today.
fandango – a Spanish dance possibly originally from the Kikongo empire
fascism From Italian,  fascismo
finale from Italian, finale, =”final”
Fetish from French fétiche, from Portuguese feitiço (“charm”, “sorcery”, “spell”), from Latin factitius or feticius (“artificial”)
Flamingo from Portuguese flamingo, from Spanish flamenco
Fiesta from the Spanish fiesta meaning “party”
fabric , Middle Fr. fabrique
fantasy , Old Fr. fantaisie
fashion , Old Fr. façon
fete Fr. fête
Fest German, fest.  Lit. Festival
Frolic from vrolijk (=”cheerful”) dutch
fiance, fiancee Fr. financé
Fiasco From Italian, Fiasco=”flop, frost, flagon”
Fresco From Italian, fresco, =”fresh, cool”. The Italian word for a painting on wet plaster is affresco


Foosball, probably from the German word for table football, Tischfußball[1], although foosball itself is referred to as Kicker in German.
Frankfurter German, Frankfurter, , pork sausage
Ganzfeld effect German, from German Ganzfeld for “complete field”, a phenomenon of visual perception
Gestalt psychology, (German spelling: Gestaltpsychologie), holistic psychology
gazelle غزال ghazāl, gazelle. Entered Latin in the early 12th century.
gay (Old Fr. gai)
galore Irish,  (from go leor meaning “til plenty”) a lot (OED).
gesture, Fr. from geste (movement)
Geek from geck (gek) (=”fool”), dutch
Gestalt German, gestalt, “The Whole is greater than the sum of the parts”
Glockenspiel, German, glockenspeil,  a percussion instrument
Gherkin from Dutch plural of gurk (=”cucumber”), shortened form of East Frisian augurk
ghoul غول ghūl, ghoul. Its first appearance in English was in a popular novel, Vathek, an Arabian Tale by William Beckford, in 1786.[7] Ghouls appear in English translations of the Arabian Nights tales in the 19th century.
glitch : a minor malfunction (possibly from Yiddish גליטש glitsh, from גליטשן glitshn ‘slide’, cf. German glitschen ‘slither’)
golem : a man-made humanoid; an android, Frankenstein monster (from Hebrew גולם gōlem, but influenced in pronunciation by Yiddish גוילעם goylem)
giraffe زرافة zarāfa, giraffe. Arabic entered Italian and French in the late 13th century
Golf from kolf (=”bat, club,” but also a game played with these), Dutch
Grab from grijpen (=”to seize, to grasp, to snatch”) , Dutch
guitar قيتارة qītāra, a kind of guitar. “The name reached English several times, including 14th century giterne from Old French. The modern word is directly from Spanish guitarra, from Arabic qitar.” (Etymonline.com). The Arabic is descended from ancient Greek kithara (which might be connected to ancient Persian Tar meaning string, and string instrument).
glamour From Scots, Meaning magic, enchantment, spell. From English grammar and Scottish gramarye (occult learning or scholarship).
Graffiti From Italian, graffiti, plural of graffito; both from graffiato=”scratched
Gong From Malay gong, a metal disc with a turned rim that gives a resonant note when struck.
Guru via Hindi गुरु ultimately from Sanskrit गुरु guru-s, which means “a teacher”.
guacamole via American Spanish from Nahuatl ahuaca-molli (“avocado sauce”)
Gurkha via Nepalese गोर्खा ultimately from Sanskrit गोरक्ष goraksa, “a cowherd”
ghetto From Italian, ghetto=”foundry”, because the first ghetto was set in the Venitian foundry area
harlequin,  Middle Fr. Harlequin, from Old Fr. Herlequin or Hellequin
hentai Japanese, 変態  listen (help·info), Western usage: pornographic cartoons, usually either Japanese in origin or drawn in a Japanese style; Japanese usage: metamorphosis, transformation, abnormality, or perversion
Holster from holster, Dutch
hooligan (from the Irish family name Ó hUallacháin, anglicised as O’Houlihan) one who takes part in rowdy behaviour and vandalism.
Himalaya from Sanskrit हिमालय himalayah, which means “place of snow”.
haka traditional Māori dance, not always a war-dance, often performed by New Zealand sports teams to ‘intimidate’ opponents; see Haka of the All Blacks
hurricane from Spanish huracán, from Taino hurákan; akin to Arawak kulakani, thunder
Horde from Turkic ordu or orda (“khan’s residence”)
Hamburger German, hamburger, sandwich with a meat patty and garnishments
howitzer from houfnice, Czech, a 15th century Hussite catapult; houf meaning crowd or band
hummus (food recipe) حمّص himmas, chickpea(s). Chickpeas were called himmas in medieval Arabic and were a frequently eaten food item.
hypochondriac, Fr. hypocondriaque
ivory  Anglo-Fr. ivorie, from Old N. Fr. ivurie, compare modern Fr. ivoire
Iceberg probably from Dutch ijsberg (literally ice mountain)
illuminati Italian, from New Latin, from Latin, plural of illuminatus=”enlightened”
incognito from Italian, incognito (from Latin in + cognitus), =”unknown”
India from Persian هند Hind, from Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindu, a river, in particular, the river Indus.
Iran from Middle Persian ایر Ir (Ary) + ان an (plural suffix)
jumbo – from Swahili (jambo or jumbe or from Kongo nzamba “elephant”)
jacket  Old Fr. jaquette, diminutive form of jaque
joie de vivre Fr. Joie de vivre
journey  (Old Fr. journée)
jar (food or drink container) جرّة jarra, earthen vase
Jackal from Persian شنگل shaghāl, ultimately from Sanskrit शृगाल sṛgālaḥ
Jaguar from Tupi or Guaraní jaguarete via Portuguese
jalapeño from Spanish, a type of spicy chilli named after Jalapa de Enríquez, a town in Mexico, and the capital of the state of Veracruz
jasmine, jessamine ياسمين yās(a)mīn, jasmine. The Arabic is from Persian.
jazz – from West African languages (Mandinka jasi, Temne yas)
Juggernaut from Jagannath (Sanskrit: जगन्नाथ jagannātha), a form of Vishnu particularly worshipped at the Jagannath Temple, Puri, Orissa. “Lord of the underworld”.
Jungle from जङल्, Hindi jangal, another word for wilderness or forest.
jumper (dress or pullover sweater) جبّة jubba, a “loose outer garment”.
kaput German, (German spelling: kaputt), out-of-order, broken
Kindergarten, German, kindergarten, literally children’s garden; day-care centre, playschool, preschool
karaoke Japanese, カラオケ  listen (help·info), “empty orchestra”; entertainment where an amateur singer accompanies recorded music
Karma from Sanskrit कर्म karman, which means “work, fate”.
Khaki from Hindustani and Urdu ख़ाकी/خاکی khaki (=”made from soil”, “dusty” or “of the colour of soil”), from Persian خاک khak (= “soil”)
Ketchup possibly from Cantonese or Amoy 茄汁, lit. tomato sauce/juice
kiosk, Fr. kiosque, from Turkish koshk, from Persian kushk
Korea from Goryeo (alt. Koryo) (고려, 高麗), historic dynasty of Korea that unified the peninsula.
Landscape from landschap, Dutch
lasso via American English from Spanish lazo meaning “tie;” ultimately from Latin laqueum, “noose, snare.”
loco From Spanish, loco, “mad” or “crazy”
Lolita From Spanish, the diminutive for Lola, short for Dolores
Leak possibly from lekken (=”to drip, to leak”), Dutch
lemon ليمون līmūn, citrus fruit.
lingua franca From Italian, lingua franca=”Frankish language”
Lemming From Finnish, lemen, a rodent species
lime (fruit) ليمة līma, citrus fruit, a back-formation or a collective noun associated with ليمون līmūn.
luffa لوف lūf, luffa. Also spelled loofah in English.
lute العود al-ʿaūd, “the oud”. “The Portuguese form pt:alaúde clearly shows the Arabic origin.”[2] Also Spanish alod in 1254, alaut in about 1330, laud in 1343
Lager, German, Lager,  beer made with bottom-fermenting yeast and stored for some time before serving
lagoon,  Fr. lagune, from Italian laguna, from Latin lacuna
liberty , Old Fr . liberté
liquor , Old Fr. licour
literature , Old Fr. litterature
Loanword German, (ironically not a loanword but rather a calque from German Lehnwort)
Louisiana, Fr. Louisiane, named for Louis XIV of France
Loot from LooT लूट, Hindi, meaning ‘steal’.
Leprechaun Irish, (from leipreachán or leath bhrogán) (OED).
loch, lough Irish,  (from loch) a lake, or arm of the sea
Lychee from Cantonese 荔枝 (laitzi), name of the fruit
lottery From Italian, lotteria=”raffle”
Lilac from Pers. لیلک lilak, variant of نیلک nilak “bluish,” from नील nil “indigo”
maneuver or manoeuvre,  Fr. manœuvre
Mascara from Italian, maschera=”disguise”
masquerade via French mascarade from Italian, maschera=”disguise”
motto From Italian, motto=”pledge”
malaria From Italian, malaria, contraction of mala, =”bad” and aria, “air”
marmalade,  Middle Fr. marmelade, from Port. marmelada
massacre , Middle Fr. massacre
matrix , Old Fr. matrice
mediocre,  Fr. médiocre
musketeer,  Middle Fr. mousquetaire
magazine مخازن makhāzin (from khazan, to store), storehouses. Used in Latin with that meaning in 1228.[4] Still used that way in French and Italian. Sometimes used that way in English in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, but more commonly in English a magazine was an arsenal, a gunpower store, and later a receptacle for storing bullets.
Mammoth From Russian ма́монт mamont [ˈmamənt], from Yakut mamont, probably mama, “earth”, perhaps from the notion that the animal burrowed in the ground) Any various large, hairy, extinct elephantsof the genus Mammuthus, especially the Wooly Mammoth. 2. (adjective) Something of great size.
Mandarin via Portuguese mandarim, Dutch mandorijn, Malay mantri, and Hindi मंत्री mantri “a councillor” ultimately from Sanskrit मन्त्रिन् mantri, which means “an advisor”.
Mugger via Hindi मगर and Urdu مگر magar ultimately from Sanskrit मकर makara (“sea creature”), like a crocodile, which attacks stealthily
macho from Spanish, macho, male, brave, the property of being overtly masculine. In Spanish is masculinity
manifesto from Italian, manifesto, =”manifest”
manila (hemp) From Tagalog, a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abacá (Musa textilis), a relative of the banana.
manga Japanese,まんが or 漫画  listen (help·info), Japanese comics; refers to comics in general in Japanese
matador from matador meaning “killer” from matar (“to kill”) probably from Arabic مات mata meaning “he died”, also possibly cognate with Persian مردن mordan, “to die” as well as English “murder.” Another theory is that the word “matador” is derived from a combination of the Vulgar Latin mattāre, from Late Latin mactare (to slaughter, kill) and the Latin -tor (which is cognate with Greek τορ -tōr and Sanskrit तर -tar-.)
mosquito from Spanish, mosquito, literally “little fly”
Mart from Middle Dutch marct (literally “market”) (modern Dutch: markt)
Meister German, meister, master, also as a suffix: –meister
messiah from (AHD) משיח mashiah ‘anointed’ (MW) + in part from Aramaic (AHD) meshiha ‘anointed’ (MW), Hebrew
monsoon, typhoon  موسم mawsim, season.  طوفان tūfān, a big rainstorm, a deluge, and used in the Koran for Noah’s Flood. The two words were adopted by European sailors in the Far East.
mattress, matelasse مطرح maṭrah, rug, large cushion
mumbo jumbo – from mandigo name Maamajombo, a masked dancer
mummy موميا mūmiyā, embalmed corpse;
obelisk , Middle Fr. obélisque
Nazi, German, short for Nationalsozialist (National Socialist)
Neanderthal German, (modern German spelling: Neandertal), for German Neandertaler, meaning “of, from, or pertaining to the Neandertal (“Neander Valley”)”, the site near Düsseldorf where early Homo neanderthalensis fossils were found
neutrino From Italian, neutrino, =”little neutron”
nada From Spanish “Nada” meaning ” nothing.”
Nirvana from Sanskrit निर्वाण nirvana-s which means “extinction, blowing out”.
novel From Italian novella, =”short story, tale”.
negro from Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian negro, “black”, from Latin Nigrum (nom. niger) and Greek Νέγρος Negros, both meaning “black.”[19]. In Spanish it is not derogatory.
omelette or omelet, Fr. omelette
orange نارنج nāranj, orange. Arabic descends from Sanskritic nāraṅga = orange. The orange tree came from India
orchestra From Italian orchestra=”band”
opera From Italian, opera, =”a work produced”
Orangutan from Malay, orang hutan or ‘people of the jungle’
Opal through French opalle from Latin opalus from Greek ὀπάλλιος opallios, probably ultimately from Sanskrit औपल upalah
origami Japanese, 折り紙, artistic paper folding
olé From Spanish, an interjection, an expression of approval or triumph, similar to the Italian bravo (capable), by spectators of bull fights or football (soccer) matches
paprika From Hungarian, paprika, a spice made out of ground hot or mild red peppers. [Originally not Hungarian, but IndoEuropean, specifically Slavic; cf. “pepper”]
phoney Irish, (probably from the English fawney meaning “gilt brass ring used by swindlers”, which is from Irish fainne meaning “ring”) fake
Porcelain from Italian, porcellana=”porcelain, china”
propaganda From Italian, propaganda=electioneering, (from Latin ‘propagare’= literally “extending forth”)
paddy From Malay, as in ‘paddy-field’ or ‘rice paddy’, from padi, referring to the rice plant Oryza sativa.
Pagoda via Portuguese pagode, from a corruption of Pers. بت‌کده butkada, from but “idol” + kada “dwelling.
Paradise via French: “paradis” and Latin: “paradisus,” from Greek paradeisos (παράδεισος) (=enclosed park”), from the Avestan word pairidaeza (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of pairi- (around), a cognate of the Greek περί peri-, and -diz (to create, make), a cognate of the English dough. An associated word is the Sanskrit word paradesha which literally means supreme country.
Piranha from Portuguese, piranha (=piranha), from Tupi pirá (“fish”) + ánha (“cut”)
potato From Portuguese, “batata”
plaid From Gaelic plaide or simply a development of ply, to fold, giving plied then plaid after the Scots pronunciation.
penguin From Welsh, possibly from pen gwyn, “white head”. “The fact that the penguin has a black head is no serious objection.
patio From Spanish patio, inner courtyard, “an open paved area adjacent to a home”
paramount, Anglo-Fr. “paramont”, from Old Fr. “par amont”
parasol , Fr. “parasol”, from Italian “parasole”
petty  (Old Fr. petit)
phantom , Old Fr. fantosme, compare Mod. Fr. fantôme
pharaoh from פרעה par’oh ‘ruler of ancient Egypt’, from Egyptian (MW)pr-‘o ‘great house’ (AHD), Hebrew
phoenix, Old Fr. fenix, compare Mod. Fr. phénix
pistol – from píšťala, Czech, an 15th century Hussite firearm
Poltergeist German, poltergeist, , literally noisy ghost; an alleged paranormal phenomenon where objects appear to move of their own accord
polka  – from Polák or polský, a Czech dance named in remembrance of the November Uprising of 1830; or from Půlka, in English half because of its tempo
Pretzel German, (Standard German spelling: Brezel), flour and yeast based pastry
Pyjamas from Hindi, पैजामा (paijaamaa), meaning “leg garment”, coined from Persian پاى “foot, leg” and جامه “garment”
reason , Old Fr. raison
Replica from Italian, replica=”copy
rickshaw Japanese, (from 人力車 jinrikisha), a human-pulled wagon
renegade from Spanish, renegado, “turncoat, heretic, disowned”
raconteur Fr. raconteur
robot – from Czech robota (labour, drudgery), introduced in Karel Čapek’s play R.U.R. from the 1920s
Rottweiler, German,  breed of dog
rodeo From Spanish, rodeo and verb rodear (to go around)
Rucksack from rugzak (=”bag that is carried on your back”), Dutch
saboteur Fr. saboteur
Santa Claus from Middle Dutch Sinterklaas (=”Saint Nicholas”), bishop of Asia Minor who became a patron saint for children
sabre (UK) or saber (US) From the Hungarian word szablya, backsword. The word made its way into English through French (sabre, sable) and German (Säbel). The Hungarian verb szabni means to slice or to tailor.
sapphire from (MW) ספיר sappir ‘precious stone’ (AHD), Hebrew, perhaps from Sanskrit शनिप्रिय sanipriya ‘sacred to Sani'[3]
Schadenfreude, German, schadenfreude,  joy from pain (literally harm joy); delight at the misfortune of others
scenario from Italian, scenario=”scenery”
sonnet From Italian, sonetto
solo From Italian, solo=”single”
Scum from schuim (froth, foam), dutch
Smelt from smelten (=”to melt”), dutch
Smuggler from Low German smuggeln or Dutch smokkelen (=”to transport (goods) illegally”), apparently a frequentative formation of a word meaning “to sneak”
safeguard,  Middle Fr. sauvegarde
sauce , Old Fr. sauce
squadron, Middle Fr. esquadron
stupid,  Middle Fr. stupide
satellite from satnal, ‘attendant’, Etruscan
serve from servus, ‘a slave’ Etruscan
stylus from stilus, Etruscan
saffron زعفران zaʿfarān, saffron
safari – from Swahili travel, ultimately from Arabic
scarlet (color) * سقيرلاط * saqirlāṭ, “fine cloth” (fine cloth of various colors but red most common
semtex – a plastic explosive named after Semtín, part of the city of Pardubice, Czech Republic, location of its manufacturer.
serendipity A word created in English in 1754 from Serendip, an old fairy tale place, from سرنديب Serendīb, an old Arab word for Sri Lanka.[78] [112] Fortified by its resemblance to the etymologically unrelated Latin word “serenity”.
Sepia from Italian, seppia, =”color extracted from cuttlefish”
soda, sodium سوادة suwwāda, سويد suwayd, or سويدة suwayda, one or more species of plant growing in salty environments (saltworts) whose ashes yielded sodium carbonate to be used as an ingredient in glass-making
sofa صفّة suffa, a bench or dais
Silk possibly from ‘si’ 絲, lit. silk
Sanskrit from Sanskrit संस्कृतम् samskrtam “put together, well-formed”
Shaman through Russian шама́н from Tungus shaman, perhaps from Chinese 萨满 sha men, via Prakrit समन finally from Sanskrit श्रमण sramana-s “a Buddhist monk”.
stiletto from Italian, stiletto, =”little dagger”
sudoku Japanese, 数独 sūdoku  listen (help·info), a number placement puzzle, also known as Number Place in the United States.
Satay (also ‘sate’) from Malay satai, Javanese/Indonesian “sate”, ‘an Indonesian and Malaysian dish consisting of small pieces of meat grilled on a skewer and served with spiced sauce.’
Shanty Irish, or Scottish Gaelic sean taigh [ʃan tī], an old house
siesta from Spanish siesta, “nap”, from Latin Sexta [hora] “sixth hour”
Sandal Arabic صندل sandal, from Persian صندل sandal skiff.
Ski From Finnish, equipment for skiing activities; originally a general word for a plank or chop of wood
sumi-e Japanese, 墨絵, a general term for painting with a brush and black ink
Sputnik From Russian: спу́тник, literally “travelling companion” from s “co-” + put “way” or “journey” + noun suffix nik person connected with something)
savvy from Spanish or Portuguese sabe, “knows”; sabio, wise, learned.
Soviet (Russian: сове́т) (Russian sovet “council”) (historical)
stampede From Spanish, estampida
Swastika from Sanskrit स्वस्तिक svastika, which means “one associated with well-being, a lucky charm”.
spinach إِسبناخ isbinākh in Andalusian Arabic, and إِسفاناخ isfānākh in eastern classical Arabic, from Persian aspanākh, spinach.[4] “It was the Arabs who introduced the spinach into Spain, whence it spread to the rest of Europe.”
sugar سكّر sukkar, sugar. Ultimately from Sanskritic sharkara = sugar
Sauerkraut  German, Sauerkraut (sometimes shortened to Kraut), fermented cabbage
Shampoo From Hindi, chāmpo (चाँपो /tʃãːpoː/) is the imperative of chāmpnā (चाँपना /tʃãːpnaː/), “to smear, knead the muscles, massage” (the scalp massage with some kind of oily or treacly mixture just before a bath).
talisman طلسم ṭilsam (a metathesis of earlier tilasm), meaning an incantation, and later on meaning a talisman.
Trigger from trekker (Trekken =”to pull”), Dutch
tangerine طنجة Tanja, port city in Morocco: Tangier (“Tanger” in most European languages). The English “tangerine” arose in the UK in the early 1840s from shipments of tangerine oranges from Tangier and the word origin was in the UK.[90] The Arabic name for a tangerine is unrelated. The city existed in pre-Arabic times named “Tingi”
tariff تعريف taʿrīf, notification, specification (عرّف ʿarraf, to notify). In late medieval Mediterranean commerce it meant a statement of inventory on a merchant ship (bill of lading), or any tabular statement of prices and products (or services) offered for sale. In use by Italian-speaking merchants in the 14th century. Entered French and English in the 16th.
Tea from the Amoy dialect for tea 茶, which is pronounced “tey”.
Thug From Hindi, Thagi ठग, meaning “thief or conman”.
tempo From Italian, tempo, =”time”
tsunami Japanese, 津波, literally “harbour wave”; Large wave caused by earthquakes or other underwater disturbances.
Typhoon Etymology: via Chinese 大风/大風, Hindi दफुं, Arabic طوفان, and Ancient Greek τυφῶν; ultimately from Persian word Toofaan (طوفان)
Tempura Via Japanese 天麩羅, tenpura, also written as “天ぷら”, from Portuguese tempero, temperar, (=seasoning, to season)
Thug through Marathi ठग and Hindi ठग thag probably ultimately from Sanskrit स्थग sthaga, which means “a scoundrel”
tobacco from Spanish tabaco, “snuff”; possibly derived from Tobago.
tornado from Spanish tronada, “thunderstorm”, influenced by tornar, “to turn”
tuna التون al-tūn, tunafish.Ancient Greek and classical Latin thunnus [= tunafish] ->medieval Arabic al-tūn -> medieval Spanish atún -> American Spanish tuna -> American English tuna
terrorism Fr.  Terrorism (first used during French Revolution)
Typhoon via Arabic طوفان; ultimately from 颱風
tycoon Japanese, (from 大君 “taikun”), “great prince” or “high commander”, later applied to wealthy business leaders. Anglacised to Tycoon.
Troika (Russian: тро́йка [ˈtrojkə] “threesome” or “triumvirate”)
tesla after Nikola Tesla
uber, über, German, uber, over; used to indicate that something or someone is of better or superior magnitude
ubuntu – Bantu languages
Villa From Italian, villa=”manor, hall”
Verandah Via Portuguese varanda (=”balcony” or “railing”), from Hindi वरांडा varanda or Bengali baranda
Virtue From Italian, virtù
Virtuoso From Italian, virtuoso=”virtuous, righteous, moral”
voodoo  – from West African languages (Ewe and Fon vodu “spirit”)
vista from Italian, vista=”view”
vendetta from Italian, vendetta, =”vengeance”
viva From Italian, viva=”alive”
vampire from serbo-croatian, vampir / вампир
vamoose from Spanish, vamos, meaning “let’s go”
vigilante from Spanish vigilante, meaning “watchman.”
Vodka (Russian: во́дка [ˈvotkə]) (Russian diminutive of вода voda “water”) An alcoholic liquor distilled from fermented wheat mash, but now also made from a mash of rye, corn, or potatoes.
Waffle (noun) from Dutch wafel, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German wafel
Wagon from Dutch wagen, Middle Dutch waghen (= “cart, carriage, wagon”)
Walrus from walrus, Dutch
Wiggle from wiggelen (= “to wobble, to wiggle”) or wiegen (= “to rock”), Dutch
Yacht from Dutch jacht, from Middle Low German jacht, short for jachtschip (literally “hunting ship”)
Yankee from Jan Kees, a personal name, originally used mockingly to describe pro-French revolutionary citizens, with allusion to the small keeshond dog, then for “colonials” in New Amsterdam
Yoga through Hindi योग ultimately from Sanskrit योग yoga-s, which means “yoke, union”.
yo-yo From Tagalog, the toy. (actually from Ilokano language rather than Tagalog)
Zen Japanese 禅, from Chinese 禪 (Mandarin Chán), originally from Sanskrit ध्यान Dhyāna / Pali झन jhāna.
Yeti यथि yathih, which means “great sage, holyman”
Yoghurt from Turkish yoğurt
Zeitgeber German, zeitgeber (lit. time-giver), something that resets the circadian clock found in the Suprachiasmatic nucleus. Physiological Psychology/Chronobiology.
Zeitgeist, German, zeitgeist, spirit of the time
Zeppelin,  German, zeppelin, type of rigid airship named after its inventor
zero صفر sifr, zero. Arabic ṣifr -> Latin zephirum (used by Fibonacci in 1202) -> Old Italian zefiro -> contracted to zero in Old Italian before 1485 -> French zéro 1485[4] -> English zero 1604; not common in English before 1800.[33] Crossref Cipher
zigzag Fr. zigzag
zodiac Old Fr. zodiaque, from Latin zodiacus, from Greek zodiakos
zombie – Central African (Kikongo zumbi, Kimbundu nzambi)